Here are some maps from my collection. They show the genetic affinity of modern populations to ancient populations (or specific ancient individuals). Mainly ancient European populations, but some non-European, like Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers.

They were originally produced by a guy called Sergey Kozlov (if I recall correctly) and are mostly based on data from the Harvard Reich Lab. I just added some labels with extra info.

Anyway, here are the maps, starting with the most recent ancient population.

Red = higher affinity
Green = lower affinity
Gray = no data

Online genetics tools

There are some other genetics tools online that you can use to check genetic affinity of modern populations to ancient samples, and vice versa. The main one is Vahaduo. I’ve noticed some inconsistencies between its various admixture calculators, so it isn’t perfect, but nothing ever is. It’s free and updated regularly.


Here’s a TL;DR tutorial for working out the distance between populations using Vahaduo:

In the “source” tab, you insert (via copypaste) the modern population data, which includes pretty much every major ethnic/racial group on earth.

In the “target” tab, insert the ancient populations that you want to compare with the modern (source) populations.

In the “distance” tab, change the “mode” to “single” and then click “run all.” I recommend leaving the gradient and output settings on default but if you want to fuck around with them you can just refresh the browser window to reset the software.

After hitting RUN ALL, you’ll get results that look like this, with the target population at the top and source populations listed underneath:

The smaller the “distance to” number, the more genetically similar a source population is to the target. Source populations are listed from most similar to least similar. The number will depend on the Vahaduo data you’re using, but for Eurogenes G25 data, the numbers mean as follows:

  • 0.00 to 0.01 = Pretty much genetically identical
  • 0.01 to 0.03 = A very close match, e.g., a neighboring ethnic group belonging to the same race
  • 0.03 to 0.05 = Closely related populations but without the significant overlap of under 0.01 to 0.03
  • 0.05 region = Still a related population, but notably different to the target population, e.g., a distant ethnic group within the same race.
  • 0.10 and above = Way off. Basically a completely different race

Obviously there are more features than Distance, but I’m not gonnna explain it all. Also, if you want to compare modern populations to ancient, just dump all of the ancient samples in the “source” tab and then insert select modern populations into the “target” tab.

Have fun.