There’s a heck of a lot of disinfo on this topic, so here’s a short article containing everything you need to know.
Nation (from Latin natio, “race, people, tribe, etc.”):
A biologically related and culturally unique group of people, who speak the same language and often (but not always) inhabit the same territory — i.e., a tribal, ethnic, or racial group.
- Note: ‘Ethnic’ stems from Greek ethnos, which is cognate with Latin natio.
State (from Latin stare, “to stand”):
An organized, self-governing collective political entity.
Country (from Latin contrata, “country, region”):
A territory that is under the control of one state.
- Note: State and country are occasionally used interchangeably. This is acceptable. Using nation interchangeably with state/country is unacceptable. A nation is specifically a tribal/ethnic/racial group, not a government or country.
A state (and country) that is controlled (and occupied) almost exclusively by one nation. More or less synonymous with “ethnic homeland.”
Ethnic (or racial) tribalism in the political realm; politics to advance the interest of the nation (including national self-determination).
“Ethnic Nationalism” or “Ethno-Nationalism”:
A pointless tautology, akin to saying “nation-nationalism.”
A sneaky oxymoron, used to refer to a multi-racial, globalized state/country. A multi-racial nation cannot exist; if a “nation” was multi-racial, it would not be a nation, but a conglomeration of separate nations.
- Note: Such a conglomeration could theoretically become a nation via the steady interbreeding of its separate populations. This would lead to shared ancestry and the ethnogenesis of a new race. The most notable example of this occurred in Central Asia, where European/Caucasoid Scythians were absorbed by successive waves of invading East Asian/Mongoloid populations, leading to the Caucasoid-Mongoloid mixed population that inhabits the region today.
Not so TL;DR
A “nation” is simply a human biological group, be it tribal, ethnic, or racial.
The innate characteristics of an “ethnos” (nation) were first defined by Herodotus (484-425 BC) as biological kinship, language, and shared culture and customs:
- ὁμόαιμον, homόaimon, “of the same blood”
- ὁμόγλωσσον, homoglōsson, “speaking the same language”
- ὁμότροπον, homόtropon, “of the same habits”
The term nation is derived from French nacioun, meaning “race of people,” which in turn is derived from Latin natio, meaning “birth, breed stock, species, race, people, tribe, etc.” Latin natio is cognate with Greek ethnos, from which ethnicity is derived. These terms fundamentally stem from Proto-Indo-European gene, meaning to “give birth,” which has many derivatives that refer to procreation and familial or tribal groups. So, a nation is explicitly a biological group and has been defined as such for thousands of years, throughout all of its linguistic iterations.
A nation is not a state nor a country. A state is a political entity ruled by one centralized governing body, while a country is the territory controlled by the state. A country can contain multiple nations (tribes, ethnic groups, or races), in which case the state would rule over multiple nations and, potentially, be controlled by multiple nations. Examples include multi-racial Italy during the Roman Empire or the entire Western World at present.
Throughout history, the default form of state or country has been the nation-state; a territory occupied and governed by one nation. Most countries outside of the West are nation-states with >95% ethnic homogeneity and >99% racial homogeneity. Mongolia is 95% ethnic Mongol, Lebanon is 95% ethnic Lebanese, Bangladesh is 98% ethnic Bengali, Japan is 98% ethnic Japanese, and so on. However, it is important to note that a nation does not necessarily have to reside within one territory; the Jewish nation, for example, is split between many countries.
There is currently a concerted effort by Globalists and Leftists — who are one and the same, at this point — to conflate the definitions of nation, state, and country, in order to push their multi-racialist, globalist agenda. Part of this includes rebranding the nation-state to the “ethno-state” or “ethnic” nation-state. Their aim is to distinguish “ethnic nationalism” (a pointless tautology) from “civic nationalism” (an oxymoron that they use to refer to a multi-racial country/state). This began in the 1960s when Globalists attempted to redefine ‘nation’ as “a multi-racial country in which people share the same Globalist Libtard ideals and stuff lol” as opposed to “a biological group.”
This Globalist agenda also includes the revisionist claim that the nation-state (and thus nationalism) is a modern invention. Leftists, Globalists, and (for some reason) certain Reactionaries all argue that the nation-state arose in Europe during the 15th Century (“because Capitalism”), the French Revolution (“because Liberalism”), or the 19th Century (with Romanticist nationalist movements).
This is all bullshit, obviously. The practical definition of the nation-state, i.e., a kingdom or country occupied and ruled almost exclusively by one nation (be it a tribe, race, or ethnic group), applies to almost every non-imperial state in history. Japan, for example, was a unified mono-ethnic, unified nation-state in 802. However, people still claim that the Japanese nation and nation-state are modern conceptions because the current Japanese state was founded in 1890. Likewise, although much of Europe was divided into multi-national (i.e. multi-ethnic) empires before the 18th and 19th Centuries, smaller nation-states existed alongside them, and their origins can be traced back to iron or even bronze age tribal periods.
The excellent time-lapse below shows the progression of European states and empires from 400 BC to the present day.