A recent lecture by leading Harvard geneticist David Reich unveiled that Early European Farmer ancestry in Northern Europeans is predominantly of Globular Amphora Culture (GAC) origin.

This means that we can more accurately model the two-way ancestry split between Proto-Indo-Europeans and Early European Farmers in Northern Europeans.

Northwestern Europe

Northeastern Europe

Interestingly, the GAC peoples (and their Funnelbeaker neighbors) appear to have had high levels of blondism, relative to other European Neolithic farmer populations, which did contain some blond people, but not a significant amount. This likely contributed to the lighter pigmentation of the Corded Ware peoples, who were a mix of Yamnaya-related Western Steppe Herders and GAC farmers.

  • Pigmentation of (skin, hair, eyes) GAC and Funnelbeaker vs Scotland Megalithic farmers:

Something that should be taken into account is the fact that hunter-gatherer populations still inhabited Northern Europe until after the Indo-European expansion, so it’s likely that modern Northwestern and Northeastern Europeans have some additional ancestry from those peoples.

For example, the Corded Ware peoples who invaded Scandinavia (known as the ‘Battle Axe culture’) happily lived alongside Pitted Ware Culture for a long time, until the populations merged to form the population of the Nordic Bronze Age.

I’m not sure how accurate the below models are, they’re pretty much an educated guess. So, don’t take them as gospel, but I did notice a drop in Yamnaya ancestry when Scandi and Baltic hunter-gatherers are included.



Pigmentation data for the hunter-gatherer populations (Motala MHG = same population as Pitted Ware Culture).


I’m currently writing another post showing how much ancestry all modern Europeans have inherited from three and four “basal” populations:

  • Western European Hunter-Gatherer, Anatolian Farmer, and Western Steppe Herder
  • Ancient North Eurasian, Western European Hunter-Gatherer, Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer, Anatolian Farmer